Weld procedures are what the engineer is supposed to develop to tell the welder how to weld to particular pieces of metal together. They can change based on metal types, position, type of joint, design efficiency of the joint, whether or not the weld is on a coded vessel or coded equipment (like receivers or boiler tubes).
Everybody used to call it "stick welding". MMAW Manual Metal Arc Welding is the correct nomenclature. The "sticks" are electrodes held in an electrode holder connected to a power supply. Establish an arc between the end of the electrode and the metal and move across the joint. As you weld the electrode is consumed. Discard the "stub", insert a new electrode and continue.